[Editor's note: This is the final post in a four-part series offering a vision for green chemistry in the United States in 2030. Part 1 defined the vision, Part 2 provided a game plan and Part 3 looked at changes needed in regulatory policy. Today's piece looks at two landmark private sector initiatives and how a robust federal green chemistry initiative could help scale up these efforts, speeding realization of the 2030 vision.]
Part 1 of this series contrasted the decade-long $12 billion federal government investment in development of nanomaterials with Congress's repeated failure to enact a relatively miniscule Green Chemistry Research and Development Act authorizing expenditures of roughly $165 million over three years.
A sad irony of the massive federal investment in nanomaterials is the absence of meaningful funding for analysis of the hazards and risks of these new materials, although work at the University of Oregon specifically merges nanoscience and principles of green chemistry.
When questions were raised in a March 2010 AOL News investigative report, the government distributed defensive "talking points" to its outside advisors that resemble the posture that companies take in response to attacks on the safety of their products and chemicals.
New products developed with public and private sector funds are being introduced into the marketplace with inadequate characterization of risks, raising the potential both for increased hazard and public backlash against materials that promise considerable social benefit.
The principles of green chemistry and the related design process of biomimicry represent a fundamentally different and more socially, economically and environmentally desirable approach to designing materials -- based on the premise that creating materials to serve functional objectives should integrate hazard, waste, and energy considerations from the very beginning of the design of new molecular structures.
The concepts of green chemistry and biomimicry have evolved and grown in parallel, identified with and promoted by separate seminal thinkers, yet they're intertwined. They both require approaching design questions from a fundamentally new perspective of minimizing the footprint of new materials on the earth's systems.
As noted in Part 1, Paul Anastas and John Warner published a book elaborating the 12 principles of green chemistry in 1998.
In 1997, Janine Benyus published "Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature." Benyus' critical point was that through extensive experimentation, nature likely has already addressed human design challenges in a highly functional way based on efficient use of economizing energy and materials:
"Life has been performing design experiments on Earth's R&D lab for 3.8 billion years. Whatever your company's design challenge, the odds are high that one or more of the world's 30 million creatures has not only faced the same challenge, but has evolved effective strategies to solve it."
About a decade after publishing the 12 principles, John Warner went on to found the Warner-Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry, a commercial laboratory launched with venture capital whose goal is designing green chemicals.
The institute declares, "By reducing or eliminating hazardous substances at the design stage, Green Chemistry is changing the world's approach to making products while creating a competitive advantage for business." Its website lists the six industry sectors in which it works, including pharmaceuticals and personal care and cosmetics. The institute creates specialized courses for individual companies, including executive training and professional training both for scientists and engineers and non-scientists.
Warner also created the complementary nonprofit Beyond Benign Foundation, which specializes in green chemistry education -- curriculum development, outreach, education and training. The foundation focuses on both academic and professional level training to support a professional workforce that can advance green chemistry, and K-12 curriculum training to provide "integral knowledge for all future scientists and educated citizens."
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