Of all the various sources of greenhouse gas emissions, one of the most little-known to the average consumer may be those from the wide-eyed dairy cow and its environs.
Some estimate that dairy industry emissions, including those from cow burps and manure, are responsible for about 2 percent of total emissions in the U.S. For some firms like the White Wave Food Company, those dairy emissions account for a significant slice of their carbon footprints.
White Wave, the Broomfield, Colo.-based maker of Silk, Horizon Organic, International Delight and Land O Lakes, has been targeting its dairy carbon footprint for years. Between 2006 and 2010, the company cut its emissions 16 percent per gallon of product, exceeding its 10 percent goal for the time period.
I had a chance to speak to the company recently to hear about how it was reducing its environmental impacts by changing up the way it handles its pastures and dairy herds. White Wave's two company-owned farms in Maryland and Idaho supply less than 10 percent of the milk supply for Horizon Organic, with the rest coming from about 550 family farmers.
For its own operations, White Wave's actions can largely be grouped into three buckets, according to Deanna Bratter, White Wave's manager of responsible livelihood: methane reduction, carbon sequestration and utilities.
Methane is a greenhouse gas that is about 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Dairy cows are a big source of methane emissions, and when it comes to cutting methane, managing and composting manure effectively is key.
"The composting practices that we put in place at the farm are to make sure we get the most benefits for end-use as a soil amendment," Bratter said, "but also throughout the composting practice to make sure the emissions are as minimal as possible."
Composting as much manure as possible is the goal, so when White Wave opened its Idaho milking parlor in 2008, the facility was designed to maximize manure recovery and prevent it from entering settling lagoons, where it would turn anaerobic and produce methane. Pasture time is also important because manure deposited in the field doesn't decompose in an anaerobic way because of air exposure. Instead, it makes the ground more productive because it is naturally absorbed by plants and the soil.
"We compost or apply as nutrients 100 percent of animal manure to feed our crops and build soil organic matter," Bratter said.
Deep Roots, Big Carbon Sink
To sequester carbon in the pastures, White Wave focuses on healthy, deep-seated root systems. The mostly perennial grasses that make up the pasture are mowed only every few years.