Made in America: Staggering amounts of toxic chemicals

Recent spills in West Virginia and North Carolina cast a spotlight on toxic hazards in our midst. But as bad as they are, these acute incidents pale in scope compared to the chronic flow of hazardous chemicals coursing through our lives each day with little notice and minimal regulation. A new report by EDF, "Toxics Across America," tallies billions of pounds of chemicals in the American marketplace that are known or strongly suspected to cause increasingly common disorders, including certain cancers, developmental disabilities and infertility.

While it's no secret that modern society consumes huge amounts of chemicals, many of them dangerous, it is surprisingly difficult to get a handle on the actual numbers. And under current law, it's harder still to find out where and how these substances are used, although we know enough to establish that a sizeable share of them end up in one form or another in the places where we live and work.

The new report looks at 120 chemicals identified by multiple federal, state and international officials as known or suspected health hazards. Using the latest, albeit limited, data collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EDF identifies which are in commerce in the U.S.; in what amounts they are being made; which companies are producing or importing them; and where they are being produced or imported. An interactive online map accompanying the report lets the user access the report's data and search by chemical, company, state and site location.

Overwhelming findings

At least 81 chemicals on the list are produced or imported to the U.S. annually in amounts of 1 million pounds or more. At least 14 exceed 1 billion pounds produced or imported annually, including carcinogens such as formaldehyde and benzene, and the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA). More than 90 chemicals on the list are found in consumer and commercial products. At least eight are used in children's products.

Our interactive map shows these chemicals are produced or imported in all parts of the country, in 45 states as well as the Virgin Islands. Companies with sites in New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Texas reported producing or importing at least 40 listed chemicals.

Gas pump image by Chailalla via Shutterstock

Top 5 states with the most sites:

1. Texas — 91 sites
2. Ohio — 40
3. Pennsylvania — 39
4. Louisiana — 36
5. New York — 31

Top 5 companies with the most chemicals

1. BASF — 24 chemicals
2. Dow — 23
3. DuPont — 12
4. Lanxess —12
5. ICC Industries and Solvchem (tie) — 10

Top 5 chemicals by volume

1. Ethylene dichloride — 28.1 billion pounds/year
2. Benzene — 23.7
3. Vinyl chloride — 16.7
4. Toluene — 15.1
5. Styrene — 10.2

Missing pieces

While the report shows how deeply toxic chemicals are embedded in U.S. commerce, the chemicals identified represent just part of the story. Companies making or importing up to 12.5 tons of a chemical at a given site do not need to report at all. Others claim their chemical data is confidential business information, masking it from public disclosure. EPA collects the data only every four years, and chemical companies often don't know and aren't required to find out where or how the chemicals they make are being used.

Water bottles image by Steven Depolo via FlickrMost Americans assume that somebody is regulating these chemicals. In fact, thanks to loopholes in federal law, officials are virtually powerless to limit even chemicals we know or have good reason to suspect are dangerous, such as those featured in our report. Because none of us has the power to avoid them on our own, we need stronger safeguards that protect us from the biggest risks and give companies that use these chemicals a reason to look for better alternatives.

The good news is that Congress is working on bipartisan legislation that — if done right — would require greater evidence of safety for both chemicals already in use and new chemicals before they enter the market. And by driving development of and access to more chemical safety data, it would give not only government but also product makers and consumers much more of the information they need to identify and avoid dangerous chemicals, and strengthen incentives to develop safer alternatives.

This article first appeared in EDF Voices: People on the Planet and is reprinted with permission. Environmental Defense Fund chemical policy fellow Alissa Sasso co-authored this article and the report it covers. Chemicals image by KYTan via Shutterstock.