This manual was designed for those who make policy and design programs that affect people and the environment. It provides an orientation to four theoretical perspectives that shape environmental education and communication projects: behavior change, participation, gender, and systems thinking. Each has its own research framework and following, yet each contributes an important set of ideas to environmental education and communication activities. The guide also includes the experiences of GreenCOM, a US-government-funded project, that illustrate the basic process of designing education and communication programs. Also featured are successful countrywide strategies illustrating some of the diverse approaches to building capacity and planning and implementing environmental education and communication. The projects involved training, policy initiatives, awards schemes, curriculum development, and multifaceted communication campaigns.